Glaucoma

Glaucoma is a condition that causes damage to your eye’s optic nerve and gets worse over time. It’s often associated with a buildup of pressure inside the eye. Glaucoma tends to be inherited and may not show up until later in life.

The increased pressure, called intraocular pressure, can damage the optic nerve, which transmits images to the brain. If damage to the optic nerve from high eye pressure continues, glaucoma will cause permanent loss of vision. Without treatment, glaucoma can cause total permanent blindness within a few years.

Because most people with glaucoma have no early symptoms or pain from this increased pressure, it is important to see your eye doctor regularly so that glaucoma can be diagnosed and treated before long-term visual loss occurs.

If you are over the age of 40 and if you have a family history of glaucoma, you should have a complete eye exam with an eye doctor every one to two years. If you have health problems such as diabetes or a family history of glaucoma or are at risk for other eye diseases, you may need to visit your eye doctor more frequently.

Why Does Pressure Rise in the Eye to Cause Glaucoma?

Glaucoma usually occurs when pressure in your eye increases. This can happen when eye fluid isn’t circulating normally in the front part of the eye.

Normally, this fluid, called aqueous humor, flows out of the eye through a mesh-like channel. If this channel becomes blocked, fluid builds up, causing glaucoma. The direct cause of this blockage is unknown, but doctors do know that it can be inherited, meaning it is passed from parents to children.

Less common causes of glaucoma include a blunt or chemical injury to the eye, severe eye infection, blockage of blood vessels in the eye, inflammatory conditions of the eye, and occasionally eye surgery to correct another condition. Glaucoma usually occurs in both eyes, but it may involve each eye to a different extent.

What Are the Types of Glaucoma?

There are two main types of glaucoma:

Open-angle glaucoma : Also called wide-angle glaucoma, this is the most common type of glaucoma. The structures of the eye appear normal, but fluid in the eye does not flow properly through the drain of the eye, called the trabecular meshwork.

Angle-closure glaucoma : Also called acute or chronic angle-closure or narrow-angle glaucoma, this type of glaucoma is less common but can cause a sudden buildup of pressure in the eye. Drainage may be poor because the angle between the iris and the cornea (where a drainage channel for the eye is located) is too narrow.

Who Gets Glaucoma?

Glaucoma most often occurs in adults over age 40, but it can also occur in young adults, children, and even infants.

  • You are at an increased risk of glaucoma if you:
  • Are over age 40. :
  • Have a family history of glaucoma. :
  • Have poor vision. :
  • Have diabetes. :
  • Take certain steroid medications, such as prednisone. :

Detection and Prevention of loss of vision

The problem with diabetic retinopathy is that there are NO SYMPTOMS in the early stages. When the retinopathy can be most easily treated, the diabetic will not notice visual changes. When the visual symptoms start it is often too late. Hence yearly eye checkups are important. Most frequent checkup may be required in severely affected cases.

Treatment

Laser treatment

Diabetic retinopathy is a treatable condition by laser. It is not a cure for vision loss. It helps maintain vision and prevents blindness. The laser is used to spot weld the leaking point in the retina and also todestroy the new blood vessels in the retina.

By doing this we can prevent complications of retinopathy such as hemorrhages, fibrous scar tissue and retinal detachment. Laser photocoagulation is performed as an OPD procedure. Laser therapy causes little or no pain. Like any therapy laser too can have side effect like blurring of vision or seeing some black spots in front of the eyes. The major reason for laser therapy is to salvage vision and prevent complete blindness.

Vitrectomy

A surgery is done to remove the blood filled vitreous and replace it with clear solution. The abnormal vessels that cause bleeding are removed and retinal detachment is repaired

Injections:

For some diabetic maculopathy patients injections may be given in the eye to prevent swelling due to leakages and improve central vision. .